Last year two Xi Baryon particles were discovered in LHC (Large Hadron Collider) in Cern. This year LHC Discovers Pentaquark which is a five-quark particle. This is the biggest discovery in physics in 2015. The scientists in Cern are always in search of new particles with the help of hadron collider. This engineering marvel collides particles in almost light speed (99.9999% of the speed of light). Then scientists study data of break down of the particles and decay nature to find out the basic particle.
The particles collide with huge energy that even splits the atom bringing out the subatomic particles. LHC is actually famous for confirming Higgs Boson. It was confirmed in 2012. They have found out its energy range. It is actually used to understand the moments after Big Bang. It does so by creating such environment of the explosion but in a limited and contained space where physicists can study the data.
This year, LHC found out pentaquark. Quarks make up Hadrons like Protons and Neutrons etc. There are many types of quarks. They include up, down, top, bottom, charm and strange. Last year, scientists found particles with 4 quarks and now they have confirmed the existence of pentaquarks. Scientists were in the search of pentaquark for a long time. As it is hard to find and study their claims were not verified. But now thanks to LHCb we have the proof of existence.
The New Pentaquark
It has been told in a magazine report that this article is different from other particles. And this can bring a huge change in our basic understanding of quantum physics. Actually, two pentaquarks of different built elements (quarks) were discovered. Pentameters were suggested by physicist Murray Gell-Mann in 1960s. But only now we found them with the latest technology.
A highly noticeable change is the energy level is found while analyzing during the procedure. Both pentaquarks have different values of energy as they have a different combination of quarks. Therefore are named after their energy content. One is Pc(4450)+ and the next one is Pc(4380)+. Scientists examined the decay of λb Baryon. All these detections are possible due to the study of data of collisions in LHC. Experiments and findings like these prove theories and show us new things.
The team is working to find other pentaquarks of other combinations. The ultimate goal is to understand the creation of the universe by going in reverse. Existence of this article has been proved after around 50 years. This will help us to understand more about particles like neutrons, protons, baryons, and others. The research will go on and try to find more particles with higher energy levels which is actually higher vibrations.
High Energy Physics and Future
Experiments at Cern like LHC are related to high energy physics. The colliders move particles at very high speed. This needs very powerful magnets, deflectors, detectors, and big tunnels. These projects need very highly skilled scientists and lots of fundings. Fundings come from different countries and organizations. Scientists are trying to understand the fundamentals and fundamental particles that make matter and universe. Higgs boson, Baryons, dark matter are all part of these.
The world’s scientific community want to go beyond and explore in unchartered territories. Things are different in the quantum realm. The detection takes very sensitive detectors and sharp minds. Main work is studying heaps of data and finding that one peak in graph or signal to discover a new thing. The collisions and decay last for fractions of a second. So it needs powerful computers and sensors to detect.
There are many particle accelerators in the world. They are working but scientists are already planning to upgrade and build even larger collider. There is a lot to find and new powerful machines can help us find those things. Scientists believe that we may need to update or standard model in the future. But there is a question on this as well. Whether we should invest billions of dollar in such experiments or not. Whatever the answer may be we know that Science should not stop. It is the only way to move humanity forward and understand nature.
News Source and Image Credit: CERN, Switzerland