Two new particles discovered at Cern Laboratory: Xi Baryons

Two new particles discovered at Cern

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a very famous scientific machine in Geneva. It is one of the world’s biggest particle collider. LHC performs many big comple experiments. Discovering Higgs Boson is one of them. These are to understand our universe in a better way. Scientists are now on the verge of finding Higgs Boson. They have already found its energy region through two separate experiments. But in the process, the scientists have discovered two new particles named Xi_b’ and Xi_b*. It is a very noteworthy discovery in the field of science.

These new subatomic particles were discovered at Cern with help of Large Hadron Collider. Particles like protons are smashed together at near speed of light in this machine. Colliders are high energy machines that accelerate particle beams and collide them. Surprisingly these new particles just have 6 times the weight of proton. These experiments require powerful computers, sensors to analyze the data, and predict the particles. These new Xi Baryon subatomic particles have greater vibration and are harder to find.

It is also impossible to collide particles at the speed of light. It is due to the limitations of physics. Therefore we can only go about 99.9999% of light speed. The laws of physics don’t let anything travel at 100% speed of light. Therefore we are bound by physics. Only photons travel at light speed. The new Xi_b’ and Xi_b* particles are created at very high energy. We should detect them in a fraction of seconds or else they can’t be tracked. Most of such subatomic particle decay fast. The data from LHC and other colliders around the world give newer information to scientists and help to verify results.

Discovery of two new Xi Baryons

This time Cern found two new particles. They are named as Xi_b’ and Xi_b*. These new baryons are made up of 3 quarks. They are b, s, and d quarks which stand for bottom, strange, and down respectively. Scientists have also predicted the magnetic spin of these new particles. Newer findings and experiments help us to understand more deeply about the Standard model. Scientists look for these particles by their energy, mass, and other properties. They also look for decay products.

LHC has a large 27 KM long underground tube. In this, particles are accelerated at a very high speed. The collision of particles gives out smaller subatomic particles and energy. Scientists are trying to find new and undiscovered particles through such collisions. Scientists at CERN do many such collision experiments to study various things. Our explanation is for basic understanding only. But the mechanism is quite complex. Actually, a lot of hard work goes into such research work. Scientists do a lot of tough calculations, measurements, and regular monitoring. It is harder to find such smaller particles because it needs high precision equipment to find them. Also, these particles decay very fast, so we need faster sensors.

Graph of Cern's experiment that shows existence of Xi_b particles
Graph of Cern’s experiment that shows the existence of Xi_b particles. Image Credit: Cern, Ian Cuming/Ikon Image

Experiments at CERN

The LHC at CERN in Geneva tries to create conditions of the birth of the universe. This means the collider creates the conditions of the Big Bang. It is the most popular theory and widely accepted theory among all. According to this, the universe was once a singularity but then it all broke out. From that point, the universe is expanding till now. All the experiments and data show that the universe is expanding very fast. The experiments of particle collision are complex and it needs a lot of energy and computational power.

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CERN is planning to start work with high energy beams very soon. They are planning to do the experiments after the upgrade in 2015. The aim is to simulate the Big Bang conditions. It helps to find the parties that were present at the initial time. Those particles are decayed but collision experiments can help simulate them. Unlike protons and neutrons, other subatomic particles decay fast and are harder to spot. This is why we need a high energy accelerator and powerful sensors.

Scientists are still trying to find Higgs Boson. It is supposed to be the subatomic particle that provides mass to an atom or a body. We can understand this as Graviton but a bit different. These experiments help in building new concepts of the creation of our universe. Many of these things can be complex to some people. Quarks and subatomic particles are topics of high-level science. We do need a good knowledge of theoretical physics to understand how forces and fields work.

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About the Author: Abhishek Chand

Structural Engineer by profession. Computer and smartphone enthusiast. Tech-savvy blogger and former Gadget reviewer of AP1 HD TV and TechnoNepal.

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