Two new particles discovered at Cern
Two new particles discovered at Cern Laboratory Image Credit: Cern, Ian Cuming/Ikon Image

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a very famous scientific machine. It is one of the world’s biggest particle collider. LHC performs many big experiments. Discovering Higgs Boson is one of them. They are to understand our universe and better. Scientists are on the verge of finding Higgs Boson. They have already found its energy region by two separate experiments. The scientists have discovered two new particles named Xi_b’ and Xi_b*. It is a very noteworthy discovery in the field of science.

These new subatomic particles were discovered at Cern with LHC. Particles like protons are smashed together at near speed of light. Colliders are high energy machines that accelerate particle beams and collide them. Surprisingly they just have 6 times the weight of proton. These experiments use powerful computers, sensors to analyze the data, and predict the particles. These new subatomic particles have greater vibration and are harder to find.

It is also impossible to collide particles at speed of light. It is due to limitations of physics. We can only go about 99.9999% of light speed. The laws of physics don’t let anything travel at 100% speed of light. Only photons travel at light speed. The new Xi_b’ and Xi_b*¬†particles are created at very high energy. We should detect them in a fraction of seconds or else they can’t be tracked. The data from LHC and other colliders gives newer information to scientists.

New Baryons

LHC has a large 27 KM long underground tube. In this, particles are accelerated at a very high speed. The collision of particles gives out smaller subatomic particles and energy. Scientists are trying to find new and undiscovered particles through collision. Our explanation is for basic understanding only. Actually, a lot of hard work goes into such work. Scientists do a lot of tough calculation, measurement, and regular monitoring. It is harder to find such smaller particles and needs high precision equipments to find them. Also, these particles decay very fast, so we need faster sensors.

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This time Cern found two new particles. They are named as Xi_b’ and Xi_b*. These new baryons are made up of 3 quarks. They are b, s, and d quarks which stand for bottom, strange and down respectively. Scientists have also predicted the magnetic spin of these new particles. Newer findings and experiments help us to understand more deeply about the Standard model. Scientists look for these particles by their energy, mass, and other properties. They also look for decay products.

Graph of Cern's experiment that shows existence of Xi_b particles
Graph of Cern’s experiment that shows the existence of Xi_b particles. Image Credit: Cern, Ian Cuming/Ikon Image

Experiments at Cern

The LHC tries to create conditions of the birth of the universe. This means the conditions of the Big Bang. Big Bang is the most popular theory and accepted theory among all. According to this, the universe was once a singularity but then it all broke out. From that point it is expanding till now. All the experiments and data show that the universe is expanding very fast.

Cern is planning to start working with high energy beams very soon. They are doing the experiments after upgrade in 2015. The aim is to simulate the Big Bang conditions. It helps to find the parties that were present at that time. Those particles are decayed but collision experiments can help simulate them. Unlike protons and neutrons, other subatomic particles decay fast and are harder to spot.

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Scientists are still trying to find Higgs Boson. Higgs Boson is supposed to be the subatomic particle that provides mass to an atom or a body. We can understand this as Graviton. These experiments help in building new concepts of the creation of our Universe. Many of these things can be complex to some people. Quarks and subatomic particles are topics of high-level science. Also to understand how forces and fields work, we do need a good knowledge of theoretical physics.

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